PWNT’s In-Line Coagulation and Adsorption (ILCA®) process was developed to minimise coagulation/flocculation footprint and to simplify pre-treatment upstream of CeraMac®. For most surface waters, coagulated feed water lowers the ceramic membrane fouling rate, but strong, large, setting flocs are not required for filtration with ceramic microfiltration. ILCA® was developed to provide only the necessary mixing at a short contact time for the CeraMac® system.
In-Line Coagulation and Adsorption
The advantages of ILCA® are:
- Any commercially available coagulant can be used.
- Normal pH control is also utilised to maximise DOC removal and minimise residual metal (e.g. Al3+) concentrations.
- With no moving parts or powered equipment, the operating cost and maintenance are minimal
- It can operate as gravity or pressure driven to fit into the necessary hydraulic profile
- It has a smaller footprint and operating cost, compared to conventional clarifiers