In the Fall/Winter of 2013/2014 a pilot study of ceramic membranes for treating secondary wastewater effluent was conducted at Changi Waste Water Treatment Plant facility. This study was used to support conceptual design efforts for a proposal for the expansion of the Changi NEWater facility of Singapore’s PUB. The pilot study first focused on evaluating different types of pre-treatment (i.e., in-line coagulation-adsorption; ILCA®, ozone, coagulation with ozone, and direct filtration).

The optimum settings were determined to be ILCA® pre-treatment with 6 mg/L Al3+ as the Sachtoklar PACl coagulant and a membrane flux of 189 lmh. The pilot was then operated at these settings for a two-week period. These tests were all performed with secondary effluent that had been chlorinated. While the process was working excellent and better then the alternative/ state of the art solution the operator Sembcorp was not selected out of a tender bid.